The cryosphere encompasses all the parts of the Earth system where water is in solid form, including ice sheets, ice shelves, glaciers, snow cover, permafrost (frozen ground), sea ice, and river and lake ice. The cryosphere exerts an important influence on Earth’s climate.

In CEOS, research themes include biogeochemistry, glaciology, Ice-associated biology, sea ice geophysics and trace metals and contaminants

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